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Specific Conservation Actions

C.1. Improving peatland habitat

The SCI Montaña Oriental (Eastern Mountain) has a large number of peat bogs located on glacial areas on slopes or in holes that feed on water from streams and water spouts. Much of these peatlands, located mainly in the public forest, are in a bad state of conservation due to extensive cattle ranching, which produces impacts such as trampling, grazing by livestock, burning or drainage to avoid flooding.

The typical peat bogs of Eastern Mountain are those that are formed from sphagnum. It is a very slow process which is normally traced back to the last glaciations, about 10,000 years ago. The shallow lakes formed in the glacial valleys were waterproofed with clays or from bed rock itself. Under the right conditions of cold and humidity the sphagnum begin to grow and the peat is generated. Over time small tilts or sloping heaps, known as mamelon structures, are formed. These formations are higher than the landscape that surrounds them and are disconnected in their growth from the level of the water (phreatic level), which feed the whole peat bog. The sphagnum that grows in these mounds depends entirely on rainwater to survive, and act as giant sponges to retain as much moisture as possible. These mamelones are surrounded by depressions of the terrain, also called channels, in which there is a more or less per

The action will consist in the restoration of three peat bogs with two objectives: to restore the ecosystem’s environmental conditions and to restore the peat bog flora by propagating plant propagules of the desired species to recreate the peat bog.

C.2. Restoration of montane forests

This action will consist in the restoration of the forest ecosystem in certain areas of the SCIs Eastern Mountain and Valnera Mountain. For this, the necessary plant will be produced in El Pendo Forest Nursery and, after the time necessary for its development and growth, it will be planted in the selected sites.

The chosen areas are marked by strong deforestation of anthropic origin and secular character, which prevents the development of their potential habitat, 9120, Atlantic acidophilic beech forests with Ilex undergrowth and sometimes Taxus (Quercion roboripetraeae or Ilici-Fagenion).

Specifically, the reforestation will be carried out with trees of one-two years of age, with a density of plantation between 600 and 800 units / hectare. The conformation of the species will be influenced by the specific location of each plantation, its altitude, soil depth, orientation, etc. Among the species to be used, there will be beech (Fagus sylvatica), Portuguese oak (Quercus petraea), birch (Betula alba), mountain-ash (Sorbus aucuparia), European holly (Ilex aquifolium) and common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna).

These tasks will be carried out by the forest crews linked to the project and will have the collaboration of volunteer actions.

C.3. Riparian forest habitat improvement

This action will be carried out jointly in the SCIs Miera River and Eastern Montain, on the habitat * Alluvial forests of Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae) and exclusively in the SCI Oriental Mountain on the Salix alba and Populus alba. It will consist of the creation of new riverside forests, in areas where this formation is absent, as well as in the restoration of riverside forests that are in an unfavorable state of conservation. In addition, works will be carried out to clean garbage present in the Miera channel and its main tributaries.